Properties of Liquid Based on Certain Measurements

Matter exists in three states i.e., gases, liquids, and solids. The chapter of the liquids is mostly concerned with the discussion of the important physical properties of liquid-like vapor pressure, viscosity, surface tension, refractive index, dipole moment and magnetic properties, etc.

The importance of these physical measurements has considerably increased during the recent years. These properties are useful to know the composition and structure of the molecules of liquids especially.

   Types of PropertiesProperties of Liquid

The properties based upon certain measurements are of four types.

  • Additive Properties

Those properties are concerned with individual atoms. These properties do not change, no matter which physical or chemical state they exist. Mass and weight of an atom do not change and we can find out the molar mass of a substance by simply adding of the atomic weights present in the molecule.

The molecular heat of a compound is the sum of atomic heats of the atoms present in it. Radioactivity is the property of individual atoms and it is also an additive property.

  • Constitutive Properties

Those properties which entirely depend upon the arrangement of atoms in a molecule are called constitutive properties. They do not depend upon their number.

So, vapor pressure, viscosity, surface tension, dipole moment, refractive index, and optical activity are constitutive properties.Properties of Liquid

  • Additive and Constitutive Properties of Liquids

These are additive properties, but their additive character is modified by the manner in which the atoms are linked together. Parachor, rheochor, and polarization are both additive and constitutive properties.

  • Colligative Properties:

Those properties which depend upon the number of particles, but not upon their nature and structure are called colligative properties. There are four colligative properties of solutions and they depend upon the number of particles of solutes. These properties are:Properties of Liquid

  • Lowering of vapor pressure
  • Elevation of boiling point  (Ebullioscopy)
  • Depression of freezing point (Cryoscopy)
  • Osmotic pressure

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